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发表于 2020-8-18 10:30:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
[study group is pressed]
Be in early 1997, the Xi Jinping that vice secretary of Fujian provincial Party committee holds the post of when is in " Fujian forum " serious article is published on the magazine " theory "  preface " times meaning " .
Xi Jinping is right in this document "  preface " gave height the opinion: "Marx studies to oneself of the plutonomy ' total gain ' -- the historical materialism principle that be proved by plutonomy theory and announces, undertook height is generalized, and for the first timeThe principle that those and the body of flesh and blood that prove scientificly organic union rises ' skeletal ' , with close to the compendious and direct form at model of medical mankind education, Reveal in the proletariat and whole society before. Reveal in the proletariat and whole society before..
2018 is reforming and opening 40 years, also be Marx birthday 200 years, the group recommends Beijing University to review sea of Han Yu of assistant dean of academy of thought of socialism of characteristic of China of close smooth new era, professor is in " study times " article print sends " the model that Marxism China turns " , offer group a study.
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"Theory "  preface " times meaning " one article, first print 1997 the 1st period " Fujian forum " magazine, the author is Comrade Xi Jinping that Shi Renfu builds vice secretary of provincial Party committee.
This document, accurate, effectively answered a Marxism the direct import to reforming and opening, the construction reform that answered China was carried out how to develop a Marxism, deep illuminate a few relations that handle Marxism fundamental to coach reforming and opening carries out need to be handled correctly, be the model that Marxism China turns make, it is the classical literature of science of society of Chinese characteristic philosophy.
This document is published be apart from today already 21 years, this year is reforming and opening 40 years. Reread this document, we feel deeply, its thought glamour and truth ray, elapse as time and be born increasingly brightness.
Academic background
The academic background of this document and jumping-off place, it is Marx is in "  preface " in the materialistic rationale that offer.
" the plutonomy is critically " the first fascicule, write at " the plutonomy is critically (1857, scriptural 1858) " and " the plutonomy is critically (1861, scriptural 1863) " between, first at " capital is talked " hank, published publicly in June 1859. This book, do not have reprint before one's death in Marx. "  preface " (the following abbreviation " preface " ) it is the preface that Marx writes for this, the heart article newspaper that ever published Yu Lundui on June 4, 1859 " people signs up for " the 5th period, become Chinese the earliest by Fan Shoukang interpret, published in Shanghai in January 1921 " Oriental magazine " the 18th the 1st.
Be in " preface " in, marx told about him to inspect the order of bourgeois system, notable is, this inspects order, with later " capital is talked " order of paragraphic arrangement, writing is quite different. He says: "I research bourgeois economy system is according to the following order: Capital, land tenure, wage labour; Market of country, foreign trade, world. Advanced 3 fall, I study the economic living conditions of the 3 big ranks that society of modern the capitalist class assigns; Other 3 mutual connection is be clear at a glance. Other 3 mutual connection is be clear at a glance..
What Marx reviewed him to study the work is germinant, from the critically sex to philosophy of law of black case Er the analysis sets out, marx " reach a result " : The relation of the law cannot understand from oneself, also cannot understand from the development of alleged mankind spirit, the true foundation of the relation of the law is " the summation that material affects " -- black case Er is wraparound " citizen society " . Be based on this just about, marx just from the research to the law, moved toward the research to the plutonomy.
Be in " preface " in, marx includes black case Er through be opposite inside research achievement undertakes comprehensive critically sex is analysed, put forward further " the total result that once get be usinged at guidance,my research works " , be opposite this " total result " undertook " state briefly " .
This " preface " not long, announced deeply however the heart road course of Marx, especially important is, marx is in " preface " in wraparound, put forward oneself to consider " total result " . Accordingly, " preface " the key that is understanding Marxism. No less than reviews close smooth comrade points out, marx studies to oneself of the plutonomy " total gain " -- the historical materialism principle that be proved by plutonomy theory and announces, undertook height is generalized, the body of flesh and blood that proves those and science for the first time the principle that organic union rises " skeletal " , with close to the compendious and direct form at model of medical mankind education, reveal in the proletariat and whole society before.
Learn research Marxism, must from " from beginning to end reads origianl work " proceed with, and the origianl work that reads Marx, should say Marx place from beginning to end again " the total result that once get,is used at coaching my research works " put on the heart. Read this article of Comrade Xi Jinping to be able to feel, he is " handgrip hand " teach us to read classical, his article is read come very kind, reflected the good style of study of the Marxism.
Illuminate and development
In the first part of the article, comrade Xi Jinping tries to generalize to Marxism fundamental from 6 respects, put forward a series of new great and scientific proposition and thought judgment further. Especially the following at 2 o'clock, read today come, thought-provoking all the more.
(one) Comrade Xi Jinping puts forward, inspect a society to change, want " the relation proceed with from human substance life and social life, politics life, cultural life " .
Be in " preface " in, marx puts forward: "The producer type that material lives is restricting whole society life, politics life and cultural life " .
Here, of the producer type that Marx emphasizes material living on one hand restrict action, on the other hand, marx is from " 4 respects " (corporeal life, society life, politics life, cultural life) the substaintial connection between, is not only from " material lives " this one respect, come to those who change inspect the mankind. Before this, when people stresses the decisive action that material lives, often of oversight mankind activity " 4 respects " the substaintial connection between. And this kind of oversight, was corrected by the article of Comrade Xi Jinping.
Inspect a society to change, answer after all from where proceed with, this concerns materialistic jumping-off place.
Comrade Xi Jinping points out, marx lives from human material above all the relation proceed with with social life, politics life, cultural life, proved to there is a kind of immanent essence to contact between economic base and superstructure. Marx still says, "As the change of economic base, all and giant superstructure also or happen slow change " , this that is to say, in social progress, corporeal life, society life, politics life, cultural life the change of 4 domains, not be synchronous, however " or fast or slow " , lopsided development is worn, as to economic domain, "Include a society production, consumption, allocate, whole process of exchange " , this " whole process " , also be to be in contradiction and lopsided in developing.
Be used to makes the same score like-minded illuminate nearly, understand a party deep to us 18 big since put forward " 5 an organic whole " total position, have important and direct sense. "5 an organic whole " total position, while the producer type that emphasizing corporeal life decides action, more each main respects that note human activity (economy, society, politics, culture, zoology) the substaintial connection between, be put forward to Marx place " 4 respects " (economy, society, politics, spirit) develop. Accordingly, master Marxism fundamental truly only, ability development understands " 5 an organic whole " total position.
(2) " principle of the main body sex of relations of production and productivity, objectivity " .
Be used to makes the same score like-minded article nearly, put forward " principle of the main body sex of relations of production and productivity, objectivity " , the creativity that is pair of Marxisms understands and develop.
The progress that why says productivity has main body sex?
Be in " the plutonomy is critically (1857-1858 year scriptural) " in, marx points out, 4 parts of economic activity (production, consumption, allocate, exchange) be with " production " build for core, accordingly, "Producer type " the core that made corporeal living. The progress that produces activity, productivity has its objective law, but, human labor differs with apian activity, serve as conscious, purposeful activity of the person because of labor namely, it is the activity of the person that has main body sex.
Why to say relations of production has objectivity?
Social life of the person, politics life, cultural life, from go up at all saying is " the summation of relations of production " . Accordingly, alleged " proper social consciousness form " , show to corporeal producer type develops the consciousness of objective process namely, "The thing that ideal thing is the material that immigrant person head has transformed in person head nothing more than just " .
Comrade Xi Jinping points out: "Marx is opposite social production, consumption, allocate, after whole process of exchange and its correlation undertake be analyticed deep study, the activity that thinks all social production are the person that makes social principal part " , "This deep explain understands relations of production is the is not move with people volition objective existence that produces mobile place generation by the person's society, and productivity also is by the production of factitious center place of main essential factor arises what can come out with corporeal form expression is objective and honest, the essential feature that both all has main body sex and objectivity " .
"Principle of the main body sex of relations of production and productivity, objectivity " put forward, it is creation of a huge. Because be decision of this one principle, whether regain consciousness self-consciously realize and seasonable and accurate the objective law that changes handholding production means, the crucial point of since historical materialism, more concern the Chinese nation great revive.
On January 18, 2016, 18 when Xi Jinping's secretary-general basically leads cadre study to carry out a party in the class that visit a department 5 in in the speech on class of special subject of plenary meeting spirit, with " bright person change because of from time to time, the person that know follows a generation and make " this is gnomic, generalized the lengthy process that our country history develops. Our country falls behind latter-dayly, from go up at all say, the human production way that because do not have,realizes Industrial Revolution place self-consciously, soberly, deeply to bring namely changes course of this objective history. And since new China holds water, our enterprise develops flourishingly, from go up at all say, because,be we the fundamental according to materialism, realized the mankind produces the general trends that means changes self-consciously, soberly, and the way that firmly holds to change, because this was accomplished " because of situation and seek, because of situation and move, because of situation and into " .
Today, mastered " principle of the main body sex of relations of production and productivity, objectivity " , we just can be comprehended deeply " economy grows new normal state " , understanding this one science to judge is to build the sober consciousness that produces manner change in opposite over, be change of pair of manner of current economy progress is active answer.
Enlightenment and breakthrough
The great practice of Chinese reforming and opening, since is in next the Marxism is how-to undertaking, also be right " preface " the breakthrough of the principle and innovation.
Comrade Xi Jinping points out, marx is in " preface " the contradictory rule of the productivity that announces and relations of production, "Apply to each social configuration before capitalism not only, also apply to socialistic society likewise " . In the meantime, he also points out: "Of course, because accept the limit of historical condition, marx is mixed to socialistic revolution especially to social progress the fundamental of construction is elaborated impossibly to the queen's taste, the socialistic reform that we undertake currently undertakes complement and be perfectinged to this just about. The socialistic reform that we undertake currently undertakes complement and be perfectinged to this just about..
In process of New Democracy revolution, we the understanding to the Marxism, main side overweight among them " destroy an old world " content, side changes relations of production at the means that struggles with the class again, transform form of old system of ownership especially. And socialism is built and reform practice, criterion " build a new world " great task is placed in the first place, in this process, we learned the thing that did not know in the past stage by stage not only, and more offerred new theory according to his practice.
For example, in the past a period, while we are emphasizing core effect of production, the whole process to economic activity (production, consumption, allocate, exchange) the organic connection between each link, underlying to its law masters not comprehensive; Emphasizing form of system of ownership especially while, the rule that runs a mechanism to economic management mechanism, economy masters inadequate, and this is OK end is " we understand insufficient development to socialistic construction rule " , adopt the great practice of reforming and opening just about, our acute meaning innovates, those who broke through pair of Marxism fundamental have understanding already.
(one) in relations of production understanding respect has breakthrough and innovation.
Relations of production, include form of proper system of ownership already (namely Marx is alleged " this law term that is relations of production " ) , more include economic management and economy to run a mechanism. And modern economy runs a mechanism, include to produce labor system, trade flow system, money to run a system -- this is to be 3 " capital is talked " research expresses palpability, it " apply to each social configuration before capitalism not only, also apply to socialistic society likewise " . We build socialist economy system, either it is OK to solved form of system of ownership, profundity of Comrade Xi Jinping points out: "Because the bag is returned to contain economic management system, economy to run a mechanism in relations of production,wait for the content of the respect, the relations of production that decided socialism is impossible to once build,can get used to the need that productivity admits without limit " , that is to say, if we do not understand the complex mechanism that modern economy runs, if do not have the current management mechanism that suits with productivity development and money to invest a mechanism, rely on to change form of system of ownership merely, cannot build the economic system that suits with productivity development, and if be in that way, we cannot say is " be good at building a new world " , cannot say we learned " the thing that oneself did not know in the past " .
Profundity of Comrade Xi Jinping points out: "Although new relations of production solves what develop to productivity besides capitalist relations of production to manacle, the development that is social productivity provided new space, but this is with respect to system of ownership character only, because the bag is returned to contain economic management system, economy to run a mechanism in relations of production,wait for the content of the respect, the relations of production that decided socialism is impossible to once build,can get used to the need that productivity admits without limit. The relations of production that decided socialism is impossible to once build,can get used to the need that productivity admits without limit..
Comrade Xi Jinping emphasizes: "Socialistic relations of production includes the basic system of socialistic state ownership already, also include economic management system and economy to run the basic content of the respect such as the mechanism; Below the circumstance that does not change in system of ownership, economic management system is opposite likewise with moving mechanism the development of productivity is had restrict action, the economic system with backward become rigid can be manacled likewise and choke productivity " .
Pass reforming and opening, we built system of socialist market economy. Of system of socialist market economy build make clear, we are more comprehensive to the understanding of economic activity whole process, the control that runs a mechanism to economy is more thorough, before managing ability sky of economy, we rose.
(2) change to the society, " social revolution " theory has breakthrough and innovation.
Comrade Xi Jinping points out: "In light of the process that develops from the society and limits, besides class struggle and productivity revolution, still have the reform of system of economic system, politics and the revolution of literary, culture, thought, also belong to social revolution category. This makes the connotation of social revolution no longer the class that confine overthrows another class at a class struggles, include all sorts of societies to weigh the content of the many sided such as culture and revolution of revolution of industry of revolution such as, science and technology, thought revolution, literary revolution however, gift thereby social revolution with new meaning. Gift thereby social revolution with new meaning..
Understand social revolution only from this angle, our ability regards the Chinese modern course of surging forward with great momentum a whole, chinese Communist advance wave upon wave struggle regard a whole, use thereby " social revolution " this lively topic comes to what all gets us struggle.
(3) change to the society, " social revolution " practice has breakthrough and innovation.
Marx is in " preface " middle finger goes out, in carrying out a process, "The mankind carries the job that gives his to be able to be solved only from beginning to end, because want to make an on-the-spot investigation carefully to be able to discover only, task itself, the corporeal condition that solving it only has existed or be at least in building a course when, just can arise " .
Combine practice of our country reforming and opening, comrade Xi Jinping had deep illuminate and development to this one judgment of Marx. He points out: "In light of the practice that reforms from the socialism of current our country, although economic system reform has gained remarkable success, but in still be in on the whole ' feeling stone to cross a river ' in ceaseless exploration. This kind of current situation that economic system reforms, the reform of socialistic politics system that decided our country must adopt the policy of active, reliable, advance gradually. Always the condition matured, must spread out in time and finish as soon as possible, always the condition is immature, want to create a condition actively, waited for an opportunity to mature to undertake again. Anyhow, want to be motivation with economic system reform, drive the success that socialistic politics system reforms actively, must not act too hastily. The successful experience of our country reforming and opening depends on this, russia reforms unsuccessful lesson to also depend on this before. Russia reforms unsuccessful lesson to also depend on this before..
Actually, understand afore-mentioned thesis deeply only, we just can master a materialist dialectics truly, handle correctly thereby development and stability, vigor and orderly, efficiency and make judge relation, good in the processing in practice be brave in the relation between the struggling target of revolutionary initiative and long period of order and stability.
Of the party 18 big since, the Party Central Committee puts forward, our task builds comparatively well-off society in the round namely, achieve the power of this task, deepen reform in the round namely, and the system safeguard that realizes this task, it is comprehensive from Yan Zhi party, comprehensive according to law state. This is Marx place say in practice " the job that offers oneself to be able to be solved " , finish our job steadily in practice.
A series of judgment that article of Comrade Xi Jinping puts forward, accede well and truly in the round already and developed a Marxism, answered us deeply also why to want reforming and opening, why to want to build system of socialist market economy, replied deeply reforming and opening and deepen reform to do how what, dry question in the round.
Contradiction and lopsided
Be used to averages the 4th share of like-minded article nearly, told how to apply rationale, directive reforming and opening carries out a few concerns that should note.
What economic life, society life, politics life, cultural life develops is not lopsided, harmonious, this is " preface " the main component of the materialistic rationale that offer, according to this Marxism fundamental, in we are explored in the theory of reforming and opening and be being carried out, want to notice economy runs the not lopsided, harmonious problem in the mechanism already, should take developing of economy, society, politics, cultural life seriously highly more not lopsided, harmonious problem, particularly important is, we need fibrous root occupies this one principle, will know the fundamental contradiction of socialistic society.
Be in " preface " in, marx art, of religion, of philosophy -- namely place of black case Er puts forward " social consciousness " , of end humanness " cultural life " , and with with " economic society lives " " politics lives " compare. Marx points out, the development of human history, in the final analysis is by " the economic base of the society that the summation of relations of production makes " what drive, but must notice at the same time, as the change that economy lives, "All and giant superstructure " changing is however " or slow or fast " , accordingly, "When inspecting these changing, must always below both distinction leaves come: Of the material that a kind of economic condition respect that is production produces, the accuracy that can use science of demonstrate change, one kind is those law that people so as to realizes this conflict and do one's best overcomes it, of politics, of religion, artistic or of philosophy, in a word, ideological form " .
In this one part of the article, comrade Xi Jinping points out, must handle socialistic cultural and ideological progress and corporeal civilization correctly to build the relationship between. This is discussed have bright specific aim, because be over there Marx, "Culture " and " cultural life " having special meaning. This kind of special meaning, the Kultur in root Yu Deyu (culture) with Zivilisation (civilized) different definition, over black case Er, alleged " civilized " , point to what be a delegate with England namely actually " citizen society " civilized, and over Marx, alleged " civilized " often be the civilization that points to bourgeois, and put forward with " civilized " different " culture " , this itself points to the new mankind that develops way to be different from capitalism to develop viatic alternative.
Latter-day since, the Chinese is right " material lives " changing pursuit, begin from Westernization Movement; Right " politics lives " changing exploration, begin from the Reform Movement of 1898; And right " cultural life " change search, begin from May 4th movement of 1919. The basic sense of May 4th movement of 1919 depends on, as the birth of the Chinese Communist, advanced Chinese, the Marxism the real couple of universal truth and China rises, chose oneself path, found the way with ongoing the Chinese nation. May 4th movement of 1919, the way that chose Marxism and communism finally to regard the mankind as advancement -- say from this meaning, "Culture " affect way, concern banner, affect way, also go up from this meaning only, we just can understand truly " culture is self-confident " why be the most essential self-confidence.
Time elapses quickly, change of seasons, the river of time is never-ending, and the light of the truth as time elapse more bright and brilliant. Today, we reread Comrade Xi Jinping this article, realise more deeply, be used to makes the same score thought of socialism of characteristic of new era China nearly, the profundity of the most crucial to contemporary China question answers since, also be the whole scientific system that forms in historical development. This one scientific system comes from inside Chinese practice, coaching China is carried out successfully, it is the development to the Marxism, it is the main component of the Marxism, it is contemporary China Marxism, 21 centuries Marxism.
Author / sea of Han to bring up
(Beijing University be used to makes the same score assistant dean of academy of thought of socialism of characteristic of new era China, professor nearly)
Origin: Study a group
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